European Astronauts

Claude Nicolier

Credit: Wikimedia-Commons

Professor Claude Nicolier, first astronaut from Switzerland, is a retired member of the first team of astronauts selected to join the European Space Agency Astronaut Corps. He has also been a commercial airlines pilot as well as a test pilot of the Swiss Air Force, a research scientist in the field of astronomy, and a university professor. Veteran of four space missions, including a space-walk, Claude started his astronaut career training as a candidate for the first Spacelab mission.

Jean-Loup Chrétien

Credit: NASA Public Domain

Brigadier General Jean-Loup Chretien, a French – CNES - astronaut and first western European in space, was a (visiting) member of the Hermes Spaceplane Cockpit Working Group – HSCWG, which was co-managed by Dr Kass, under ESA (Toulouse office) leadership. Chrétien flew on several Soyuz/MIR and Space Shuttle missions.

 

Claudie Haigneré

Credit: Wikimedia-Commons

Dr Haigneré French medical doctor, politician, and former astronaut with the Centre National d'Études Spatiales and the European Space Agency. She is the first French female astronaut, visiting the MIR station (1993), and the first European woman to visit the International Space Station (2001). She participated in the work of the Hermes Spaceplane Cockpit Working Group – HSCWG, which was co-managed by Dr Kass, under ESA (Toulouse office) leadership.

Michel Tognini

Credit: NASA Public Domain

Brigadier General Michel Tognini was a qualified test and fighter pilot in the French Air Force, and a former CNES and ESA astronaut who also served as Head of the European Astronaut Centre (EAC), of the European Space Agency. Tognini served on two space missions, one on the MIR station on the Antares mission (1992), and the second on the Shuttle mission (STS-93, 1999) with the deployment of the Chandra X-Ray Observatory. He supported ESA’s Hermes program in Toulouse, participating with the Hermes Spaceplane Cockpit Working Group – HSCWG, which was co-managed by Dr Kass.

Dirk Frimout

Credit: Wikimedia-Commons

Viscount Dr Frimout a Belgian astronaut, and an astrophysicist for the European Space Agency. He flew aboard NASA Space Shuttle mission STS-45 (1992) as a payload specialist, making him the first Belgian in space. Earlier, he was Crew Activities Coordinator and Experiment Coordinator for Spacelab-1 (STS-9, 1983), and worked with Dr Kass to coordinate the crew activities for the European Vestibular Space Sled experiments, for which Dr Kass was responsible.

 

Reinhard Furrer

Credit: Wikimedia-Commons

Prof. Dr. Furrer (1940 –1995) was a German physicist, an avid pilot, and astronaut. He was a payload specialist on the first German Spacelab mission STS-61-A (D1, 1985), for which he was trained by a team led by Dr Kass to perform a series of vestibular experiments on the Space Sled using the Vestibular Helmet. He participated in the fatal flight of the historic Messerschmitt Bf-108 after the end of the official Berlin air show.

 

Ernst Messerschmid

Credit: NASA Public Domain

Professor Dr Ernst Messerschmid, a German physicist, engineer, academic, and astronaut, was one of the astronauts on the first German Spacelab mission D-1 (STS-61-A, 1985). Amongst the many experiments he operated on this mission, he was trained by a team led by Dr Kass to perform a series of vestibular experiments on the Space Sled using the Vestibular Helmet. After this mission he followed a stellar career in academia, becoming Dean of Aerospace Faculty, and later, Vice-President, of Stuttgart University, Germany. He also served for five years as Head of the European Astronaut Centre (EAC), in Cologne, Germany.

 

Reinhold Ewald

Credit: NASA Public Domain

Dr Ewald, a German physicist and ESA astronaut, he flew on the second German-Russian mission MIR-97 in February 1997, as a member of the German astronaut team. Dr Kass trained him to operate the Modular Physiological Laboratory, MEDEX, which was flown on this mission. The experimental operations of this facility were carried out successfully despite major set-backs suffered, such as a fire, and a collision resulting in the decompression of the Spektr module.

 

Frank de Winne

Credit: NASA Public Domain

Viscount De Winne is an ESA astronaut and Belgium's second human in space (after Dirk Frimout). He was the first ESA astronaut to command a space mission when he served as commander of ISS Expedition 21. He is currently Head of the European Astronaut Centre of the European Space Agency in Cologne/Germany (Köln). Dr Kass helped organized the 2nd International Workshop on Lessons Learned in Program/Project Management to which he invited Frank de Winne to present his vision for sharing lessons learned.

 

Sigmund Jähn

Credit: Deutsches Bundesarchiv Commons

Major General Dr Sigmund Jähn is a German pilot, who became the first German to fly in space as part of the Soviet Union's Interkosmos programme. He flew on board Soyuz 31 to the Soviet space station Salyut 6 in 1978, after which he was awarded the title Hero of the Soviet Union, and became the first German cosmonaut. After German reunification, he worked German Aerospace Center (DLR), and also for the European Space Agency (ESA) to prepare for the Euromir missions.

Hans Schlegel

Credit: NASA Public Domain

Hans Schlegel is a physicist, an astronaut of the German Space Agency (DLR) and then a member of the European Space Agency Astronaut Corps. He first flew as a scientist-astronaut for the German D2 Spacelab mission on Space Shuttle mission STS-55 (1993). He then prepared as a backup crew for the German-Russian MIR-97 mission, for which he was trained by Dr Kass to perform a series of experiments with the Modular Physiological Laboratory, MEDEX, which was flown on this mission. This training was carried out in Germany as well as at Gagarin Cosmonaut Training Centre in Star City, near Moscow.

Ulf Merbold

Credit: NASA Public Domain

Dr Merbold is the first West German citizen and second German native (second German after after Sigmund Jähn) to have flown in space. He is also the first member of the European Space Agency Astronaut Corps to participate in a spaceflight mission, and holds the distinction of being the first non-US citizen to fly into orbit in a US spacecraft. Merbold’s first flight was on the Space Shuttle in conjunction with the first flight of the European Spacelab (STS-9, 1983). For this mission, he was trained to perform a long series of neuro-physiological experiments by a team of scientists lead by Dr Kass.

Jean-François Clervoy

Credit: NASA Public Domain

Mr Clervoy, an ESA astronaut (France), flew three Shuttle missions and operated the robotic arm to manoeuvre the suited astronauts during three EVA’s to upgrade systems on the Hubble Space Telescope. He participated in the work of the Hermes Spaceplane Cockpit Working Group – HSCWG, which was co-managed by Dr Kass, under ESA (Toulouse office) leadership.

 

Wubbo Ockels

Credit: Wikimedia-Commons

Professor Dr Ockels, first astronaut from the Netherlands, is a retired member of the first team of astronauts selected to join the European Space Agency Astronaut Corps. He is also a nuclear physicist and professor at the University of Delft. He was one of the team of three European astronauts who flew on the German D1 Spacelab mission (STS-61-A, 1985). Amongst the experiments he operated on this mission, he was trained by a team led by Dr Kass to perform a series of vestibular experiments on the Space Sled using the Vestibular Helmet.